2 edition of Military expenditure and economic growth in the Middle East found in the catalog.
Military expenditure and economic growth in the Middle East
Includes bibliographical references and index.
|LC Classifications||UA832 .W34 2009|
|The Physical Object|
|LC Control Number||2009043411|
The resulting reports on participating countries in the MENA region, which are available from the websites of the IMF, the World Bank, and central banks or ministries of finance of these countries, have generally shown progress in some areas. A new report dated 4 July by the Eisenhower Research Project based at Brown University's Watson Institute for International Studies estimates that nearly 10 years after the declaration of the War on Terror, the wars in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Pakistan have killed at leastpeople, including men and women in uniform, contractors, and civilians. As a result, they have not played the intermediation role needed to underpin a more vigorous pace of investment and growth. The experience accumulated to date indicates that economies that, over extended periods, embrace openness and globalization tend to grow faster than those that adopt inward-looking growth strategies. Similarly, recent research on sources of TFP growth in the MENA region as well as other regions shows that to reverse the region's low and negative TFP growth, policymakers need to focus on improving governance and quality of institutions, investing in human capital, and establishing market-friendly and peaceful political environments.
Moreover, the region's information and technology links are among the weakest in the world. Dropout and repetition rates remain high in several countries. Citation Our articles and data visualizations rely on work from many different people and organizations. Methodology[ edit ] The cost of conflict methodology takes into account different costs a conflict generates, including economic, military, environmentalsocial and political costs. The future level and trend in US military expenditure was a prominent topic in the political debate in the USA during Size and composition of the public sector.
Figure 7. Again, much higher rates of population growth in the oil-producing countries, among other factors, pulled down per capita growth rates. More services and features. In Saudi Arabia, a list of activities targeted for privatization was issued by the Council of Ministers in November
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Poor provision of basic public goods and services, such as public infrastructure, accounts in large part for the low private sector investment response in the MENA countries. Throughout the world, major infrastructure, such as telecommunications and power, has generally been the sector that generated the largest proceeds from privatization and this has also been the case in the MENA region.
Click to open interactive version Defence spending in UK over the very long-run The extent to which war influences military spending is demonstrated in this visualisation.
In most cases there is little attempt by these studies to analyze the causes of these conflicts as they would have been previously documented, and do not serve the purpose of the tool of measuring the cost of conflict.
As a result, the size of governments in the MENA countries, as measured by the ratio of central government spending to GDP, averaged about 42 percent of GDP in the s, some 12 percentage points higher than for developing countries as a group excluding the MENA countries.
BoxAntelias, Lebanon; from US: US Embassy Beirut, Beirut Place, Washington, DC FAX:  4 Flag description: three horizontal bands consisting of red topwhite middle, double widthand red bottom with a green cedar tree centered in the white band; the red bands symbolize blood shed for liberation, the white band denotes peace, the snow of the mountains, and purity; the green cedar tree is the symbol of Lebanon and represents eternity, steadiness, happiness, and prosperity National symbol s : cedar tree; national colors: red, white, green National anthem: name: "Kulluna lil-watan" All Of Us, For Our Country!
As in many of the other factors underlying growth, the performance on financial development is differentiated across countries in the region. There were substantial cross-country differences in population growth rates.
A deepening of political reforms is widely viewed as a prerequisite for firmly rooting badly needed economic reforms. However, the remaining countries, despite recent trade liberalization efforts, such as in the Islamic Republic of Iran, Morocco, Pakistan, Tunisia, and Sudan, continue to maintain relatively high tariffs and nontariff barriers.
For example, Saudi Arabia's population grew at an annual average rate of 4. Click to open interactive version 2 Most countries devote resources to their military even in the absence of conflict How much do countries spend on the military in the absence of major violent conflict?
A main weakness was recognized to be the extent to which countries observe certain internationally accepted standards of transparency in economic management, such as in the fiscal, statistical, and financial sectors and in creating a fair and open environment for the private sector.
Morocco and Tunisia were the first countries to introduce the VAT in andrespectively. Another reason for the low-growth performance is the region's low or often negative growth of total factor productivity TFPthat is, the efficiency with which factors of production such as physical capital and labor are employed to generate growth.
There are several reasons for this ambiguity: data limitations, unclear demarcation line between the private and the public sectors, lack of transparency regarding the size of extra-budgetary operations and contingent or hidden liabilities, and implicit subsidies, many of which are associated with the public enterprise sector.
Egypt has made some successful inroads into the divestment of state holdings by adopting domestic stock exchange floatation and employee buyouts.
Although the rates in these subgroups converged by late s to about 2. The ensuing high and rising share of working age population could, under the appropriate circumstances, be seen as a demographic gift capable of contributing positively to growth rate in the region.
How are military capabilities changing in the 21st century? In the majority of countries in the region, over two-thirds of the population is under 30 years of age. The influx of nearly one million registered and an estimatedunregistered Syrian refugees has increased social tensions and heightened competition for low-skill jobs and public services.
Some of the region's oil-producing countries, such as the Islamic Republic of Iran, Kuwait, and Oman, have addressed this procyclicality by establishing oil and stabilization funds OSF that save part of the oil receipts abroad, in effect, sterilizing foreign exchange inflows.
In contrast to other developing countries, the region underperformed since the s and, as a result, did not reap the full benefits of globalization and world economic integration.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Chris Longhurst. For instance, more than 31, people in uniform and military contractors have died, including the Iraqi and Afghan security forces and other military forces allied with the United States.
These waves might be ebbed, but might prove hard to contain. For information and interview requests contact Stephanie Blenckner blenckner sipri. A poorly administered tax system is another channel through which the public sector can impose significant costs on the economy.
For instance, further privatization efforts in the telecommunication and infrastructure sectors, appropriate regulatory oversight, proper sequencing of regulatory reform, and an adequate social safety net mechanism—all could serve to further stimulate private sector investments.May 02, · For the seventh consecutive year, SIPRI’s data on military expenditure worldwide shows ‘not much change’ in the world total – but many of the signs point to a renewed surge in years to come.
Their fact sheet reviews some of the key trends in the data. Economic Causes and Consequences of Defense Expenditures in the Middle East and South Asia there is evidence that military expenditures do not necessarily reduce overall economic growth in developing countries as a whole.1 Defense expenditures may in some instances act as an economic stimulus in various ways such as financing heavy industry.
Cost of Conflict is a tool which attempts to calculate the price of conflict to the human race. The idea is to examine this cost, not only in terms of the deaths and casualties and the economic costs borne by the people involved, but also the social, developmental, environmental and strategic costs of conflict.
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Read reviews from the world's largest community for readers. leader of the international system in the 20th century as opposed to other traditional power centers in Asia and the Middle East. In the end, he never gets to the "ultimate question," which was the enchanting goal of Jared Diamond's /5.
May 02, · ‘The increases in world military expenditure in recent years have been largely due to the substantial growth in spending by countries in Asia and Oceania and the Middle East, such as China. In stark contrast, military expenditure in the developed world is generally associated with good things.
In the context of Western society, military spending helps foster technical and economic innovation, which in the long run, helps sustain economic growth and continued prosperity.